One of the most common types of air transportation is an airplane. Airplane or aeroplane, is an aircraft machine with a fixed wings used for traveling. It is the most common form of air transportation that can carry people to different destinations. It only takes several hours to travel from one distant place to another. Airplane does not only take you faster to places you want to go but it also makes your travels comfortable and relaxed.
Furthermore planes are also used for securing the air base of a certain country whenever there is an air attack. It is use as a defense for defending the national territory of different countries. Airplanes are made for the convenience of travelers for this vehicle will lead them to the place they want to go for a short period of time.
There are two kinds of airplanes: the lighter air crafts and the heavier air crafts. Lighter air craft is supported by its own buoyancy or its floating ability, while the heavier aircraft it requires some engines or propellers to float in the air.
Based from the ancient stories Greek legend Daedalus build a pair of wings and attached it to Icarus, his son, to escape from the Crete Island. Through his wings Icarus flew very high, but the wax used in putting the wings next to his body had melted so he fell and that was the cause of his death.
In the year 1799, Sir George Cayley created the concept of modern airplane. He defined it as a “fixed-wing aircraft with propulsion, control and separate system for lift. Earlier in 1803, Cayley created fixed-wing air craft models, and in 1856 he successfully built a carrying-passenger glider. His research about flights had become the foundation of Aerodynamics a modern science. Jean Marie le Bris a Frenchman was the first one who made the first power flight using his glider “L’Albatrosartificiel” pulled by a horse along the beach in 1856. The first flight controlled in glider was made by John J. Montgomery in 1883.
Sir Hiram Maxim made a craft weighed 3.5 tons, with 34 meter wing span powered by 270-KW with two steam engines driving the two propellers. His machine was tested in 1894, with rails over head to avoid it from rising. Test showed that it has the capability to lift and take off. But later on the craft was uncontrollable, and because of this Maxim stop working on it.
Around 1890’s Lawrence Hargrave made a research about wing structures and a box kite that can lift a man. His designs then on adopted widely. In the year 1867 and 1896, Otto Lilienthal a German national pioneered the human aviation. Otto was the first one to make well-documented successful gliding flights.
In 1903, the Federation of AeronautiuqueInternationale (FAI) the record keeping and standard setting organization for aeronautics, recognize the flight of Wright brothers. It was the first controlled heavier-than air flight. Wright Flyer III in 1905 was the first craft which is fully controllable and has the capability to sustain stable flight for durable periods.
There are different types of engines that are used in
- It is usually use in smaller and older air crafts, propellers are used to create trust.
- Jet aircrafts are powered by jet engines, this engines are much powerful than reciprocating engine. It works quietly than other types of engine and it works well for higher altitude. For the modern jet planes, turbofan jet engines are used for balancing of the propeller, while maintain the speed and the power of the jet. It is an engine that creates backward trust that continuously pushes its engine forward.
An airplane comes with different designs and sometimes these designs may vary according to its purpose. In modern times, different innovations has been introduced and made to improve the quality of service of aircraft companies. Airplanes have different parts and this includes the following:
- It is the aircraft fixed-wing structural part. Traditionally, this airframe was made of wood with fabric surfaces; then later on it was made of metal.
Airframe has also its sub-parts namely:
- Two or more horizontal wings with airfoil cross shape. These wings refract the air downward as the plane moves forward, making the lifting force. Wings provide stability to stop the plane from turning to the right or left in smooth flight.
- It is a vertical structure that has wing-like surface, which is mounted at the back part of the plane. Sometimes it is called as a fin; this fin stabilizes the air craft direction and supports the rudder which mobilizes the rotation of the plane within its axis.
- It is the body structure of the plane where all the other components are attached. It contains flight deck, cargo and passenger compartment, and the cockpit. It produce little lift and lots of drags.
- Wings are the most important part of a plane or aircraft. The design of it may vary according to its purpose. Wing has an upward angle that is called dihedral it helps to keep the plane from moving to different directions during the flight. Wings also carry the fuel of an airplane. Its main purpose is to balance the weight of the plane.
- Empennage or other may called as tail provides control and stability of the aircraft. It is composed of horizontal and vertical stabilizer. These stabilizer help to keep the plane on track, rudder is attached in vertical stabilizer while elevators are attached in horizontal stabilizer. There are different types of airplane tails such as; standard tail, twin tail, T-tail and V-Butterfly tail.
Based on studies it is safer to travel using an airplane than other form of vehicles. However if you want to travel using airplane you need to take several risks like;
- Delayed flights
- Plane crash
For the safety and security of the passengers of a plane, air craft mechanics do the job in the maintenance of theplane and all its parts working according to its purpose. It it’s important that the airplane is in good condition before it is allowed to go on a flight for the safety of the passengers and the crew.